Kamis, 06 Januari 2011

Nursing Process

According Doenges (2000) nursing process is a process that consists of 5 specificstages:

Assessment is the collection of data related to the patient in a systematic, coveringphysical, psychological, sociocultural, spiritual, cognitive, functional ability, economic development and lifestyle. The assessment includes data collected through interviews,gathering medical history, physical examination, laboratory and diagnostic, as well asreview previous records.
According to Rothrock (1987) study represents the first phase of nursing process whichincludes collecting data and organizing data. Data collection is a major tool initialassessment of patients and is a continuous process to obtain the information necessary to provide nursing care. Actual or potential information can come directlyfrom the patient, family or friends, medical records, or other health personnel.Subjective data (what the patient), or what objective data is seen, heard, kissed, ortouched by a nurse). Data obtained by interview, physical examination, or by reading the report (the results of x-ray, laboratory examinations, progress notes orconsultation). Data organization is organizing and processing information necessary tohelp the efficient decision making.

Kamis, 30 Desember 2010

Nursing Environment

The concept of environment in nursing paradigm focused on the environmentalcommunity is that the physical environment, psychological, social, cultural andspiritual.
According to Leavell (1965), there are three interrelated factors affect the health of theenvironment which the agent (cause), host (humans) and environment.
Agent is a factor that caused the disease, such as biological factors, chemical,physical, mechanical or psychological such as viruses, bacteria, fungi or worms.,chemicals and even stress. Host is the human beings or animals can be infected bythe agent, while the environment is the external factors that affect health such as theslum environment, an uncomfortable work environment, low socioeconomic level, health care facilities.


Is a situation that is not only free from disease and to maintain function at an adequate minimum level, but is a healthy state of full physical, mental, social and spiritual which is a human function as a whole, integrated and dynamic so that they can live productive and economically social. Health is seen as a balanced state of bio-psycho-socio-spiritual dynamic with many factors influencing it and allow people to farm independently and function optimally for a role in the family, and community groups. Nurses also believed that good health and illness is a range that is influenced by a variety of individual factors, including genetics and heredity, abilities, life experiences and interactions with social factors, environment and changes. Health is determined by the ability of individuals, families, groups or communities to create a realistic and meaningful goals, and the ability to mobilize energy and resources to achieve these goals efficiently. Health should be viewed from different levels, individuals, families, communities and society. Optimum Health is a state where individuals can improve the ability and potential to achieve a prosperous state of bio-psycho-socio and spiritual. 

Senin, 13 Desember 2010

Paradigm Nursing


The paradigm is the way how we perceive the world, (Adam Smith, 1975) or according to Ferguson that the paradigm is the paradigm in understanding and explaining certain aspects of any reality.Paradigm will help a person or society at large to understand the world to us and help us to understand every phenomenon that happens around us, no win no fee in this life.

Paradigm NursingThe paradigm of nursing according to Masterman, 1970 is a fundamental view about issues in a branch of science.The paradigm of nursing according to Gaffar, 1997, is a fundamental point of view or the way we see, think, give meaning, mmenyikapi and choose tindakanterhadap various phenomena that exist in nursing. Thus the paradigm of nursing serves as a reference or basis in carrying out the nature of professional nursing practice, that does not mean there are no win no fee in the fight against disease.

Nursing Paradigm Component:
1. Human
2. Health
3. Nursing Environment

1. Human
Human beings are bio - psycho - social and spiritual whole, in a sense is an integral part of the physical and spiritual aspects as well as unique because it has a variety of needs according to developmental level (the Consortium of Health Sciences, 1992).
Humans are open systems that constantly interact regularly with the external environment and always strive always to balance its internal state (homeoatatis), (Kozier, 2000).Humans have a reasonable idea, feeling, unity of body and soul, able to adapt and is a unity of interacting systems, interrelation and interdependence (La Ode Jumadi, 1999: 40).
Thus, the concept of man according to the paradigm of nursing is a human being as an open system, adaptive systems, personal and interpersonal skills to be generally holistic or whole. As an open system, humans can influence and be influenced by their environment, both physical environment, biological, psychological and social and spiritual so that changes to humans will always occur, especially in fulfilling their basic needs, no win no fee in the fight against the disease should be ruled out.
As the human adaptive system will respond to changes in their environment and will show an adaptive response and the response maladaptif. Adaptive response will occur if humans are to have good coping mechanisms to face changes in their environment, but if the ability to respond to environmental changes that occur lower then the man will show behaviors that maladaptif.Man or clients can be interpreted as individuals, families or communities who receive nursing care.

 Man as an individual means a person who has a character totally making it different from other people (Karen, 2000). Man as an individual called the people who have personality and emotions include behavior include attitudes, habits, beliefs, values - values, motivations, capabilities, appearance and physical structures that differ from one another. 
Combined all this will affect someone in the way of thinking, feeling and acting in different situations in the face it. The individual is a combination of genetic interactions with her life experiences are influenced by self-identity, self-concept, perception, basic needs, self-defense mechanism and grow flowers.The role of nurses in the individual as the client is meeting the basic needs include the needs of biological, social, psychological and spiritual because of the physical and mental weakness, lack of knowledge, lack of willingness to independence of patients rather than with the concept of no win no fee in the fight against disease.

 The family is closely related group of individuals who continually and there is interaction with each other, either individually or together - together, in their own environment and society as a whole.

There are several reasons why the family is one focus of nursing services, namely:
1. The family is the primary unit in society and an institution which involves people's lives.
2. The family as a group can cause or prevent, fix or ignore health problems within their own group. Almost every health problem from start to completion will be influenced by the family.
3. Health problems in family related. Disease in one family member will affect all members of the family.
4. In treating clients as individuals, families remain as decision making in treatment.
5. The family as an effective intermediary in various public health efforts.In providing nursing care in family caregivers need to pay attention to nature - the nature of the family that the family has a unique reaction and how to deal with the problem, the pattern adopted for communication, decision making, attitudes, values, ideals - ideals of family and family lifestyles are different - different Individuals in the family has a growth cycle.

The role of nurses in helping families improve the ability to solve health problems is a nurse as detection of health problems, give care to sick family members, family health services coordinator, facilitator, educator and adviser to families in trouble - the views of health problems including no win no fee in this life against the disease.

 Society is a group of humans in the broadest sense and are bound by a culture they consider the same.Community influence on the increase and the prevention of a disease. There are six factors influence the health of the community or community members of the community is that the availability of health care facilities, facilities dominated education and recreation, transportation and communication facilities, social facilities such as police and firefighters as well as values and beliefs of society views no win no fee in this life against disease .Health services in this community can take the form of services to the general public and groups - certain groups (children and elderly).

Minggu, 12 Desember 2010


Nursing is a profession that is focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities to achieve, maintain, and heal the optimal health and functioning. Modern definitions of nursing is defined as a science and an art that focuses on promoting quality of life is defined by the person or family, through the whole experience of life from birth to care at the death.

There are several definitions of nursing according to the figures below:
1. Florence Nightingale 1895Nursing is a process of placing the patient in the best conditions for the move.
2. Faye Abdellah (Twenty One Nursing Problems, 1960)Nursing is a form of service to individuals and families, and society with science and art which include attitudes, knowledge and skills possessed by a nurse to help the good people in good health or illness in accordance with the level of need.
3. Virginia Henderson (Fourteen Basic Needs, 1960)Unique function of nurses is to help healthy or sick individual to use force, he has the desire and knowledge so that individuals are able to carry out daily activities, recover from disease or die in peace.
4. Dorothy E. Johnson (Behavioral System Theory, 1981)Nursing is a set of actions that have the power to protect the unity or integrity of client behavior at the level optimal for health.
5. Imogene King (Goal Attainment Theory, 1971, 1981)Nursing is a process of action and interaction, to help individuals of various age groups in meeting their needs and address their health status at a given moment in a life cycle.
6. Madeleine Leininger (Transcultural Care Theory, 1984)Nursing is a learned humanistic art and science that focuses on people as individuals atu group, sensitivity to customs, functions and processes that lead to the prevention or behavioral health maintaining or healing of disease.
7. Martha Roger (unitary Human Beings, an energy field, 1970)Nursing is a knowledge which is intended to reduce anxiety for the maintenance and improvement of health, disease prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of ill and disabled patients.
8. Dorothea Orem (Self Care Theory, 1985)Nursing is a service that is menusiawi that focuses on meeting human needs for self care, recovery from illness or injury and prevention of complications that can increase the degree of health.
9. Callista Roy (Adaptation Theory, 1976, 1984)The purpose of nursing is to improve the adaptation response in dealing with health problems. Adaptive response has a positive influence on health.10. National deal, 1983Nursing is a professional service which is an integral part of health care based on nursing science and troubleshooting, service bebrbentuk bio-psycho-socio and spiritual comprehensive, targeted at individuals, groups and communities both healthy and sick that covers the entire cycle of human life.

Selasa, 07 Desember 2010

Pathology Nephritis

Pathology nephritis
Macroscopic kidney enlarged, the surface of the slices looked bloated due to swollen.Typical on-medullary border areas kortiko looked pale areas. Histopathological abnormalities, known as 2 different forms of nephrotoxic lesions and lesions of Urinary Tract Infection.

Clinical Manifestation
Acute Type:Heat / subfebris, low back pain uni / bileteralUrinary turbid, sediment examination: leukocytes> 5 cells / PLP, bacteria ()Urine culture: colony growth> 10 ^ 5 ml / urine, arising a few days and disappeared after a series of treatment.
Chronic Type:There are periods of remission / esarsebasi, nyreri dish unlateral / bilateral recurrent-kumatan, can also hot sufebris.Urinary turbid, sediment: leukocytes => 5/plp, bacteria ()Positive urine culture with colony> 10 ^ 5 ml / urine

While awaiting the results of urine culture and sensitivity tests can be given one dose of antibiotics• Nitrofurentoin 3x100 mg• 3x1 nalidixic acid tab• 2x1 pipemedik acid capsuleOr sulfate preparations: combination trimetropim and sulfamethoxazole at a dose of 2x2 tablet. Given between 5-7 days. Following is the results of urine culture and sensitivity tests, give the drugs sensitive to the choice of the first, the drugs are given orally, if possible class of chemotherapeutic. Next new antibiotic options in the first rank.Giving these drugs for 7-10 days.For chronic cases are given maintenance therapy with non-antibiotic drugs: Nitrofurentoin, nalidixic acid, sulfuric acid pipemedik or preparations, given 1 tablet after dinner. Kuur urine cultures performed after the first, and after the maintenance dose given 1 month.

Rabu, 24 November 2010

Epidemiology Nephritis

Urinary Tract Infection, especially nephritis can be found at all age levels. The highest prevalence in young women and men over 50 years. About 20% of women had experienced attacks urinary tract infection. Female child and adult women have the incidence of urinary tract infection and nephritis is higher than men, probably because of the shorter urethra and its location adjacent to the anus so easily contaminated by feces.
Epidemiological investigation showed significant bacteriuria (10 ^ 5 organisms / ml urine) at 1 to 4% girl students, 5 to 10% in women of childbearing age, and about 25% of women whose age exceeds 60 years (Papper, 1978), but only a few cases which showed clinical symptoms of urinary tract infection and nephritis.
However, further research is done on the long term of school age girls said that girls who have had bacteriuria will be even more susceptible to urinary tract infection and replication nephritis in adult life, usually not long after marriage or during first pregnancy (Kunin, 1987).
Although urinary tract infection and nephritis is responsible for the morbidity is quite high, but rarely result in nephritis and end-stage renal disease, except in cases of illness was not accompanied by real urologic damage in childhood - usually reflux severe vesi-koureter Infection in men is rare, and when there are usually caused by obstruction.